Essay “Hunger and Population Explosion” by Anna Mackenzie

This essay sheds light on the causes and negative effects of rapid population growth in the world.

Population growth leads to food shortage problems.  Population growth can lead to problems such as poverty and unrest.

Famine is the result of constant hunger. Since the beginning of the era, man has been facing famine and drought. During the reign of Pharaoh, the Nile River was dry in Egypt for seven years, which caused the hard famine. People had nothing to eat. The granaries were empty. Many famines are mentioned in the Bible. During the reign of Hazrat Yusuf (peace be upon him), there was a seven-year famine in Egypt and the surrounding areas. Hazrat Yusuf (peace be upon him) had already made this arrangement to avoid famine.  Thanks to this arrangement, the people of Egypt were saved from the hardships of famine.

From the birth of Jesus to 1800, there were at least 350 famines in Europe, that is, one famine every five years. During this period, there was a major famine in Great Britain every ten years. Apart from these big famines, we find mention of many small famines in the folklore of English literature.

The famines studied in Europe were relatively less severe. In China, there were 90 mass famines in the same century. In the previous century, 9.5 million people starved to death in northern China. In 1942, one million people died of famine in Bombay. In 1964-65, India had its biggest famine of the century.

Famine can have many causes. Droughts and diseases cause food shortages. Rapid population growth can also lead to famine. But the sources of food production are not increasing fast enough. If the population is not controlled, the threat of famine will continue to hover around the world.

In the past, the population of the world was very small. At the time of the birth of Jesus, the population of the world was 20 to 30 million. In 1650, it doubled, and in 1850, it doubled. Currently, the population of the world has exceeded six billion. If the population continues to grow like this, then in three or four centuries, the population of the world will be so much that people will not even have a place to stand on the ground.

The reason for the increase in population is the growing difference between the death rate and the birth rate. Due to the development of medicine, the death rate has decreased. In developed countries, 19 out of every 20 children are now young. In Western countries, because the birth rate is low along with the death rate, the population problem has not become so serious.

In poor countries, the birth rate is very high. People here cannot meet their basic needs. Schools, hospitals and welfare facilities are not equal. People lack education. Because the exports of these countries consist of raw materials, there is very little market for them. A widening economic gap between rich and poor countries can be the result of war.

In the past, the population of the world was reduced due to wars and famines.  But now famines and diseases have been controlled. Poor countries can solve their problems if they control their growing population.

Exercise Short Questions

Q.No.1 What does hunger mean on a large as viewed by the author?

Ans:  Hunger on a large scale means that there is never enough food available.People are constantly worried about their food.When they cannot manage to eat enough to satisfy their hunger, they are hungry.

Q.No.2  Describe some great famines of the past?

Ans:  The first famine was during the reign of Pharaoh, an Egyptian ruler. There was a famine during the reign of Yusuf (peace be upon him) that lasted for seven years. From the birth of Jesus (peace be upon him) until about 1800, Europe faced famines in different 350 years. China faced  90 major famines in a century. In 1921-22, Famine in Russia killed millions of people. In Bengal, 1969, 100 million people died of starvation. In 1970, 1 million people died of starvation in Bombay. In 1964-65, India’s worst famine of the century came.

Q.No.3 How do famines occure?

Ans:  If the available food is not enough for people to eat, it can spread famine. Sometimes a disease suppresses crops, it can cause famine. And it does not produce grain for people to eat.

Q.No.4  What is the main reason for population increase today?

Ans:  The difference between the birth rate and death rate is the main reason for population increase today.The fatal diseases have been controlled. The death rate has also been decreased, and the resultr io increasing the population.

Q.No.5 What is meant by birth rate and death rate and how do affect the population of a country?

Ans:  The ratio in which children are born is called  Birth rate, and the ratio in which people die is called Death rate. Death rate has been decreased and the poipulation is increased.

Q.No.6 What have public health measures to do with the increase in population?

Ans:  Measures related to public health guarantee the health of the people. These measures have controlled epidemics and deadly diseases, so the death rate has decreased. A decrease in the death rate leads to an increase in population.

Q.No.7 Account for the high birth rate in under developed countries?

Ans:  Most of the people in underdeveloped countries are illiterate. They don’t understand the seriousness of the problem they keep having children. The moment they realize their mistake. They do something to solve the problem.

Q.No.8 Why is the birth rate not so high in more advanced countries?

Ans:   People in developed countries are generally highly educated. They are well aware of the problems that a large family can create, so they make a conscious effort to control the size of their families. As a result, birth rate remains low in these countries.

QA.No.9 Give a brief account of the poor economic condition prevailing in under developed countries.

Ans:  Underdeveloped countries face problems of poverty. Their cities are full of beggars. People in villages can barely meet their needs. There is a lack of factories. Roads and railways are in bad condition. There are hospitals, schools and colleges are very few and far between.

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